Madeleine Leininger
SPECIAL FEATURE: Leininger's Reflection on her Ongoing Father Protective Care Research
Madeleine Leininger, PhD, LHD, DS, RN, CTN, FRCNA, FAAN, LL

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Abstract: Four Western and one non-Western culture were investigated in order to obtain in-depth knowledge about father protective care beliefs and practices. Protective care/caring refers to specific ways to help individuals, groups, families, institutions and communities to maintain well-being and health and to prevent destructive or harmful acts toward self or others. Protective care is a critical factor in the prevention of destructive acts or ways that could threaten the life, health or survival of human beings directly or indirectly. The four Western cultures observed were mid-American Old Order Amish, Anglo American, and Mexican American. The non-Western culture was the indigenous Gadsup of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea. This article depicts reflections and descriptions of an ongoing ethnonursing qualitative care research that utilized the Theory of Culture Care and had the goal discovering expressions as well as characteristics of father protective care through direct observations, live-in immersion and in-person interviews. Since the phenomenon of protective care is manifested differently in Western and non-Western cultures, this research focused on the subtle, hidden, obscure and diverse expressions and examples of father protective care in both types of cultures. While protective care was more readily identified, practiced and held as an expected cultural norm in the non-Western culture, its presence was also identifiable in Western cultures. Protective care was especially evident with young children, adolescents and the older adults. The benefits to recipients of father protective care were identified, in addition to its impact on the health, well-being, illness and ease of death.

Keywords: Father protective care, Culture Care Theory, ethnonursing, Leininger, Gadsup, Anglo American, Mexican American, Old Order Amish

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